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Отношение к Американцам в мире

 
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Зарегистрирован: 06.03.2005
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Откуда: Обер-группен-доцент, ст. руководитель группы скоростных свингеров, он же Забашлевич Оцаат Поэлевич

СообщениеДобавлено: Пятница, 23 Июнь 2006, 10:47:49    Заголовок сообщения: Отношение к Американцам в мире Ответить с цитатой

http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/06/13/news/pew1.php

Image of U.S. falls again

By Brian Knowlton International Herald Tribune

Published: June 13, 2006
WASHINGTON As the war in Iraq continues for a fourth year, the global image of America has slipped further, even among publics in countries closely allied with the United States, a new global opinion poll has found.

Favorable views of the United States dropped sharply over the past year in Spain, where only 23 percent now say they have a positive opinion, down from 41 percent in 2005, according to the survey, which was carried out in 15 nations this spring by the Pew Research Center. In Britain, Washington's closest ally in the Iraq war, positive views of America have remained in the mid-50s in the past two years, still down sharply from 75 percent in 2002.

Other countries where positive views dropped significantly include India (56 percent, down from 71 percent since 2005); Russia (43 percent, down from 52 percent); and Indonesia (30 percent, down from 38 percent).

In Turkey, a NATO ally of the United States, only 12 percent said they held a favorable opinion, down from 23 percent last year.

Declines were less steep in France, Germany and Jordan, while people in China and Pakistan had a slightly more favorable image of the United States this year than last.

The ebbing of positive views of the United States coincides with a spike in feeling that the war in Iraq has made the world a more dangerous place. This perception was shared by majorities in 10 of the countries surveyed, including Britain, where 60 percent said the world had become more dangerous since Saddam Hussein's removal from power in 2003.

Over the past year, support for the U.S.-led fight against terrorism also declined again, Pew found.

The latest declines came after a year in which anti-American sentiment had slightly receded, aided by good feeling over U.S. aid for tsunami victims and political progress in Iraq.

Many respondents distinguished between their largely negative feelings about President George W. Bush and their feelings about ordinary Americans. Majorities in 7 countries polled had favorable views of Americans, led by Japan, at 82 percent, and Britain, at 69.

But only in India and Nigeria did majorities express confidence in Bush. In Spain, just 1 in 14 respondents registered confidence in him, as did only 1 in 33 in Turkey, an important NATO ally.

After a tumultuous year in both Iraq and Afghanistan, the fight against terrorism is now backed by more than 50 percent only in Russia and India, while support has virtually collapsed in Japan, the poll found. In Spain, deeply affected by the March 2004 bombings in Madrid, a scant 2 in 10 people back the U.S.-led fight.

Pessimism about the future of Iraq was widespread. The polling, by the Pew Global Attitudes Project, was conducted in April and May this year - before the completion last week of the Iraqi government, or the killing of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of Al Qaeda in Mesopotamia.

All groups except Americans and Germans saw the U.S. presence in Iraq as posing a greater threat to world peace than the threat posed by Iran, which is pursuing a uranium enrichment program that the United States and other Western countries view as a prelude to developing its own nuclear weapons. Russians held that view by a 2-to-1 margin, and even the British did so by a narrow margin.

"Obviously, when you get many more people saying that the U.S. presence in Iraq is a threat to world peace as say that about Iran, it's a measure of how much Iraq is sapping good will to the United States," said Andrew Kohut, president of the Pew Research Center.

But as leading powers seek ways to contain the Iranian nuclear program, the poll found strong majorities in Western Europe, Japan, and India sharing underlying U.S. concerns. The percentage of people in Britain, France, and Spain who view Tehran as a threat has roughly tripled in three years.

Pew surveyed 16,710 people in Britain, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. The polling was conducted from March 31 to May 14.

The success in Palestinian elections of Hamas, which the United States and the European Union consider a terrorist group, raised concerns. For the first time, Germans said that they sympathized with Israel more than with the Palestinians. Support for Israel rose in France, as well. But in Muslim countries, large majorities supported Hamas's victory.

The poll found people in most of the 15 countries unhappy with national conditions. But in China, amid continued vigorous economic growth, a striking 8 in 10 people said that they were satisfied with the way things were going. Slim majorities in Egypt, Jordan and Spain also expressed satisfaction.

After a year of immigrant riots and job protests in France, people in every country but one - the United States - said that they held dimmer views of the French. The number of Americans favorably impressed by France rose to 52 percent, up from 29 percent in 2003, when the French angered Americans by refusing to back the Bush administration's decision to go to war in Iraq.

There was considerable agreement on Iran. More than 9 in 10 Americans, Germans, Japanese and French opposed Iran acquiring nuclear arms.

By sizable margins, they deemed President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad untrustworthy, and said that if Tehran had nuclear weapons it would be likely to share them with terrorists and to attack Israel. Only 1 in 25 Spanish respondents expressed a lot or some confidence in the Iranian leader.

The picture was different in Muslim countries: Pakistanis, who take great pride in their own nuclear program, narrowly favored Iran obtaining nuclear weapons, and more than 40 percent in Egypt and Jordan agreed. Muslim publics believed that Iran would use a nuclear weapon for defensive purposes.

In other areas, too, regional differences emerged. The Japanese were more than twice as likely to see North Korea as a threat as they were Iran. But in China, which shares a border and economic ties with North Korea, only 1 in 10 saw Pyongyang as a threat.

Despite the toll taken by the Iraq war, Americans appeared to be paying less attention than others around the world to controversies the war has engendered.

While 3 in 4 Americans said they had heard reports of abuses at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq and at the U.S. naval base in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, substantially more West Europeans and Japanese - 9 in 10 - had heard about them.

Awareness of global warming was uniformly high in the industrialized countries, but concern about its effects was sharpest in Japan and India, with two-thirds of those polled in both countries expressing great concern. Awareness was lowest in the countries that are the greatest emitters of the greenhouse gases linked to warming - China and the United States - and only 2 in 10 people in those countries said they were very concerned about the problem.

Awareness of bird flu was nearly universal. The greatest alarm over the spread of the disease was in Asia, where the avian epidemic began, and in Africa. Only one American in 10 was very worried, and European levels were similarly low.

Americans' views of several other countries have improved, perhaps influenced by efforts at reconciliation between the United States and some of its Iraq war critics, and by increased cooperation on issues including Iran and North Korea.

"It runs counter to this notion that we've become xenophobic," Kohut said.

While ancient wartime grievances still reverberate between China and Japan, darkening each side's views of the other, two other historical foes, France and Germany, have highly favorable feelings toward each other.

The German chancellor, Angela Merkel, enjoys very high approval ratings not just at home - where 8 in 10 Germans support her - but in France, where nearly as many French do so.

And in a phenomenon troubling to Bush and his Republican supporters, war worries and high gasoline prices appear to be weighing on Americans' satisfaction ratings, even as many economic indicators have risen. While half of Americans expressed satisfaction with conditions at home in 2003, only 29 percent did so this year.

The Pew survey's margin of error was 2 to 4 percent in every country but Britain and Germany, where it was 6 percent. Kohut said the 6 percent margin, while high, was still valid in so broad a comparative survey.


WASHINGTON As the war in Iraq continues for a fourth year, the global image of America has slipped further, even among publics in countries closely allied with the United States, a new global opinion poll has found.

Favorable views of the United States dropped sharply over the past year in Spain, where only 23 percent now say they have a positive opinion, down from 41 percent in 2005, according to the survey, which was carried out in 15 nations this spring by the Pew Research Center. In Britain, Washington's closest ally in the Iraq war, positive views of America have remained in the mid-50s in the past two years, still down sharply from 75 percent in 2002.

Other countries where positive views dropped significantly include India (56 percent, down from 71 percent since 2005); Russia (43 percent, down from 52 percent); and Indonesia (30 percent, down from 38 percent).

In Turkey, a NATO ally of the United States, only 12 percent said they held a favorable opinion, down from 23 percent last year.

Declines were less steep in France, Germany and Jordan, while people in China and Pakistan had a slightly more favorable image of the United States this year than last.

The ebbing of positive views of the United States coincides with a spike in feeling that the war in Iraq has made the world a more dangerous place. This perception was shared by majorities in 10 of the countries surveyed, including Britain, where 60 percent said the world had become more dangerous since Saddam Hussein's removal from power in 2003.

Over the past year, support for the U.S.-led fight against terrorism also declined again, Pew found.

The latest declines came after a year in which anti-American sentiment had slightly receded, aided by good feeling over U.S. aid for tsunami victims and political progress in Iraq.

Many respondents distinguished between their largely negative feelings about President George W. Bush and their feelings about ordinary Americans. Majorities in 7 countries polled had favorable views of Americans, led by Japan, at 82 percent, and Britain, at 69.

But only in India and Nigeria did majorities express confidence in Bush. In Spain, just 1 in 14 respondents registered confidence in him, as did only 1 in 33 in Turkey, an important NATO ally.

After a tumultuous year in both Iraq and Afghanistan, the fight against terrorism is now backed by more than 50 percent only in Russia and India, while support has virtually collapsed in Japan, the poll found. In Spain, deeply affected by the March 2004 bombings in Madrid, a scant 2 in 10 people back the U.S.-led fight.

Pessimism about the future of Iraq was widespread. The polling, by the Pew Global Attitudes Project, was conducted in April and May this year - before the completion last week of the Iraqi government, or the killing of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of Al Qaeda in Mesopotamia.

All groups except Americans and Germans saw the U.S. presence in Iraq as posing a greater threat to world peace than the threat posed by Iran, which is pursuing a uranium enrichment program that the United States and other Western countries view as a prelude to developing its own nuclear weapons. Russians held that view by a 2-to-1 margin, and even the British did so by a narrow margin.

"Obviously, when you get many more people saying that the U.S. presence in Iraq is a threat to world peace as say that about Iran, it's a measure of how much Iraq is sapping good will to the United States," said Andrew Kohut, president of the Pew Research Center.

But as leading powers seek ways to contain the Iranian nuclear program, the poll found strong majorities in Western Europe, Japan, and India sharing underlying U.S. concerns. The percentage of people in Britain, France, and Spain who view Tehran as a threat has roughly tripled in three years.

Pew surveyed 16,710 people in Britain, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. The polling was conducted from March 31 to May 14.

The success in Palestinian elections of Hamas, which the United States and the European Union consider a terrorist group, raised concerns. For the first time, Germans said that they sympathized with Israel more than with the Palestinians. Support for Israel rose in France, as well. But in Muslim countries, large majorities supported Hamas's victory.

The poll found people in most of the 15 countries unhappy with national conditions. But in China, amid continued vigorous economic growth, a striking 8 in 10 people said that they were satisfied with the way things were going. Slim majorities in Egypt, Jordan and Spain also expressed satisfaction.

After a year of immigrant riots and job protests in France, people in every country but one - the United States - said that they held dimmer views of the French. The number of Americans favorably impressed by France rose to 52 percent, up from 29 percent in 2003, when the French angered Americans by refusing to back the Bush administration's decision to go to war in Iraq.

There was considerable agreement on Iran. More than 9 in 10 Americans, Germans, Japanese and French opposed Iran acquiring nuclear arms.

By sizable margins, they deemed President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad untrustworthy, and said that if Tehran had nuclear weapons it would be likely to share them with terrorists and to attack Israel. Only 1 in 25 Spanish respondents expressed a lot or some confidence in the Iranian leader.

The picture was different in Muslim countries: Pakistanis, who take great pride in their own nuclear program, narrowly favored Iran obtaining nuclear weapons, and more than 40 percent in Egypt and Jordan agreed. Muslim publics believed that Iran would use a nuclear weapon for defensive purposes.

In other areas, too, regional differences emerged. The Japanese were more than twice as likely to see North Korea as a threat as they were Iran. But in China, which shares a border and economic ties with North Korea, only 1 in 10 saw Pyongyang as a threat.

Despite the toll taken by the Iraq war, Americans appeared to be paying less attention than others around the world to controversies the war has engendered.

While 3 in 4 Americans said they had heard reports of abuses at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq and at the U.S. naval base in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, substantially more West Europeans and Japanese - 9 in 10 - had heard about them.

Awareness of global warming was uniformly high in the industrialized countries, but concern about its effects was sharpest in Japan and India, with two-thirds of those polled in both countries expressing great concern. Awareness was lowest in the countries that are the greatest emitters of the greenhouse gases linked to warming - China and the United States - and only 2 in 10 people in those countries said they were very concerned about the problem.

Awareness of bird flu was nearly universal. The greatest alarm over the spread of the disease was in Asia, where the avian epidemic began, and in Africa. Only one American in 10 was very worried, and European levels were similarly low.

Americans' views of several other countries have improved, perhaps influenced by efforts at reconciliation between the United States and some of its Iraq war critics, and by increased cooperation on issues including Iran and North Korea.

"It runs counter to this notion that we've become xenophobic," Kohut said.

While ancient wartime grievances still reverberate between China and Japan, darkening each side's views of the other, two other historical foes, France and Germany, have highly favorable feelings toward each other.

The German chancellor, Angela Merkel, enjoys very high approval ratings not just at home - where 8 in 10 Germans support her - but in France, where nearly as many French do so.

And in a phenomenon troubling to Bush and his Republican supporters, war worries and high gasoline prices appear to be weighing on Americans' satisfaction ratings, even as many economic indicators have risen. While half of Americans expressed satisfaction with conditions at home in 2003, only 29 percent did so this year.

The Pew survey's margin of error was 2 to 4 percent in every country but Britain and Germany, where it was 6 percent. Kohut said the 6 percent margin, while high, was still valid in so broad a comparative survey.

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Zabougornov
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Откуда: Обер-группен-доцент, ст. руководитель группы скоростных свингеров, он же Забашлевич Оцаат Поэлевич

СообщениеДобавлено: Четверг, 28 Июнь 2007, 16:58:31    Заголовок сообщения: Ответить с цитатой

http://www.newsru.com/world/28jun2007/opros_usa.html
http://www.inopressa.ru/wp/2007/06/28/09:50:23/image
http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=256
Опрос в 47 странах: растет недоверие к США, к России относятся настороженно, к Путину и Бушу доверия нет


Опрос в 47 странах показал рост недоверия к США в мире
На основе этого опроса также дан сравнительный анализ отношения респондентов к внешней и внутренней политике России и США, и их лидерам - Владимиру Путину и Джорджу Бушу
В мире увеличивается недоверие к России, США и Китаю, свидетельствует опрос населения, проведенный в 47 странах американским институтом Pew Research Center

В мире увеличивается недоверие к России, США и Китаю, свидетельствует опрос населения, проведенный в 47 странах американским институтом Pew Research Center. Целью опроса было составить представление об отношении людей в разных странах к политическим курсам, лидерам государств и угрозам глобального значения.

На основе этого опроса также дан сравнительный анализ отношения респондентов к внешней и внутренней политике России и США, и их лидерам - Владимиру Путину и Джорджу Бушу. Отметим, что данный опрос обнародован накануне визита Владимира Путина в США, который пройдет 1-2 июля в поместье Джорджа Буша-старшего.

За последние 5 лет образ Соединенных Штатов в мире существенно ухудшился. В то же время мнение о Китае стало значительно положительнее. Образ России в разных странах отличается, однако доверие к президенту Владимиру Путину резко упало. По этому показателю российский лидер встал на один уровень с президентом Бушем.

В среднем за этот период число людей, имеющих о США положительное мнение, снизилось на 26 процентных пунктов.

Хотя эта страна сохраняет популярность в Африке (88% положительных отзывов в Кот д'Ивуаре), этот показатель падает на Ближнем Востоке (9% положительных отзывов в Турции) и среди американских союзников в Европе. Так, за этот период число лиц, придерживающихся хорошего мнения о США, сократилось во Франции с 62% до 39%, в Германии - с 60% до 30%, в Великобритании - с 75% до 51%.

Респонденты жестко критиковали США за то, что это государство действует, не учитывая точку зрения других стран. Энергично поддерживалась идея вывода американских войск из Ирака. Значительная часть опрошенных также возражала против военных операций США и НАТО в Афганистане, сообщает "Интерфакс".

И все же в 25 из стран, где проводился опрос, большинство респондентов заявило, что относится к США положительно. Все это подталкивает к выводу, что антиамериканские настроения "усилились, но не расширились территориально", пишет The Washington Post. (Полный текст на сайте Inopressa.ru.)

Представление о Китае остается положительным в 27 из 47 стран, где проводилось исследование, но этот показатель снизился за пятилетие в десяти странах. Особенно заметно это в Японии - с 55% до 25%.

Что касается России, то судя по опросу, к ней относятся настороженно: положительное мнение о РФ отмечено в 14 странах, отрицательное - в 10, причем географическая закономерность не прослеживается. Так, больше половины опрошенных одобрительно высказываются о ней в Канаде и Болгарии, в Индии и на Украине, в Словакии и Китае. На противоположном полюсе значатся, например, Швеция и палестинские территории, Польша и Египет, Германия и Чехия.

Однако в большинстве стран, где проводилось это исследование, мнения о России разделились приблизительно пополам. Например, в США 44% дали очень положительную или положительную оценку России, 35% - отрицательную или очень отрицательную, остальные мнения не имеют.

Как говорится в выводах из опроса, "общее отрицательное отношение к российскому лидеру возросло до уровня, сравнимого с почти повсеместным в мире недоверием к Джорджу Бушу".

Опрошенные не выражали большого доверия ни к российскому президенту Владимиру Путину, ни к президенту Венесуэлы Уго Чавесу, ни к президенту Ирана Махмуду Ахмади Нежаду, ни к президенту США Джорджу Бушу.

Но здесь отмечена интересная тенденция - сравнивая роли Путина и Буша в качестве глобальных лидеров, респонденты оценивали роль лидера России выше, нежели президента США.

Так, в Великобритании глава Кремля опережает главу Белого дома (37% и 24% соответственно), в Канаде (36% и 28%), в Германии (32% и 19%), не говоря о России (84% и 18%). В США своего президента видят в качестве глобального лидера 45% опрошенных, а российского - 30%.

Опрос также показал, что среди глобальных угроз на первое место выдвигается охрана окружающей среды, причем США воспринимаются в качестве главного ответственного за ущерб, который наносится природе.

В опросе приняло участие более 45 тыс. человек. Вопросы задавались по телефону или в личной беседе. Погрешность по каждой стране составляла 2-4%.
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VBA



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СообщениеДобавлено: Четверг, 28 Июнь 2007, 17:13:14    Заголовок сообщения: Ответить с цитатой

Все логично, я только не понимаю, как респонденты могут оценивать внутреннюю политику в других странах. Это все равно что оценивать сексуальные качества чужих жен или мужей.
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Loanka



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СообщениеДобавлено: Вторник, 23 Сентябрь 2008, 12:52:47    Заголовок сообщения: Ответить с цитатой

Вот и свеженькая информация. Cool

http://www.vz.ru/economy/2008/9/23/210834.html

Бизнес США боится за имидж страны
Крупный бизнес США недоволен ростом антиамериканизма в мире

23 сентября 2008, 11:29
Текст: Александр Киселев


Корпорации США столкнулись с тем, что рост антиамериканских настроений в мире стал угрозой ведения бизнеса. Прежде всего это касается трансатлантических корпораций, чей бизнес основан на лояльности к ним населения, как, например, Coca-Cola, McDonalds и Microsoft. На данный момент большая часть мира относится к распространению американского влияния негативно, и это отношение выливается в трудности для американских компаний.

Как отмечает президент неправительственной организации Business for Diplomatic Action Томас Миллер, на данный момент лишь в трех странах мира - Танзании, Нигерии и Южной Африке - преобладает мнение о том, что глобальное влияние США ощущается позитивно.


«Парадоксально, но США оказались в группе стран, которые сам Вашингтон причислил к «оси зла» В остальных 20, где проводились исследования таких организаций, как Pew Global Atitude, BBC World Service, Edelman Trust Bаrometer, налицо негативное отношение к распространению влияния США.


«Крупнейшие корпорации обеспокоены ростом антиамериканских настроений в мире, которые, ни для кого не секрет, связаны с отношением к проводимому внешнеполитическому курсу Белого дома», - цитирует Миллера РИА «Новости».


Высшей точки антиамериканские настроения в мире достигли в середине 2007 года. Парадоксально, но США оказались в группе стран, которые сам Вашингтон причислил к «оси зла» - Ирана и Северной Кореи. Также там оказались Пакистан и Израиль. Правда, среди них у США – наименьший отрицательный рейтинг.


Интересно, что такое отношение распространяется, прежде всего, на США, как на страну с определенным политическим курсом.

Отношение к американцам намного более дружественное. Только китайцы относятся к гражданам Америки хуже, чем к стране в целом.

Среди развитых стран отношение также негативное. 70-72% опрошенных Pew Global Attitudes в Германии, Великобритании, Австралии, Турции и Франции признали, что недовольны экономическим влиянием США.


«Это, в свою очередь, сказывается и на отношении к бизнесу - во многих странах с развитой экономикой американские партнеры вызывают значительно меньшее доверие, чем их конкуренты из Великобритании, Канады, Германии или Японии», - сослался Миллер на данные Edelman Trust Bаrometer, полученные в 2007 году.


Снижение имиджа страны всерьез стало беспокоить крупные американские корпорации, чей бизнес, в первую очередь, зависит от теплого отношения широкого населения.

Как отметил Томас Миллер, компании в условиях роста антиамериканизма боятся за свой персонал, за потерю конкурентоспособности в борьбе за квалифицированные кадры и снижение шансов на успех при заключении сделок.

Что же касается объемов продаж, то тут пока трудностей не возникало.

Как сказал Миллер, Business for Diplomatic Action и школа глобального менеджмента Thunderbird запускают программу для американских бизнесменов и дипломатов Laughing , где их будут обучать пониманию национальных особенностей и построению межкультурных связей.

Идея такого обучения появилась у компании McDonalds и была поддержана Coca-Cola, Microsoft и American Airlines.

Как писала газета ВЗГЛЯД, американские бизнес-круги призывали к осторожности администрации Джорджа Буша по отношению к России в связи с конфликтом вокруг Грузии.

Президент Национального совета международной торговли США Бил Райнх, высказываясь предельно дипломатично, сказал, что бизнес США совсем не хотел бы пострадать от ограничения торговых отношений с Россией.
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Откуда: Обер-группен-доцент, ст. руководитель группы скоростных свингеров, он же Забашлевич Оцаат Поэлевич

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http://www.inopressa.ru/article/19Jun2009/wsj/re.html
Америка глазами Европы: результаты нашего опроса о политическом и культурном влиянии США

45% русских и 46% самих американцев считают, что США негативно влияют на мировую культуру, отмечает The Wall Street Journal, резюмируя результаты собственного соцопроса. Такой же ответ дали 32% европейцев.

"Что касается роли США в мировой политике, то большинство европейцев полагает, что последние пять лет она была негативной, но после избрания Обамы на пост президента резко изменилась к лучшему", - пишет журналист Адам Коэн. В принципе отношение европейцев к американской культуре неоднозначно: например, многие выразили недовольство американской кухней, но фильмы и телесериалы сочли одной из лучших статей экспорта США, отмечает автор. Опрос проводился по заказ издания фирмой GfK и охватил более 18 тыс. человек в 18 странах - 16 европейских, США и России. Респондентов просили указать их любимые и нелюбимые аспекты американской культуры, а также оценить политическое влияние США в мире.

"В целом большинство участников опроса (39%) назвали влияние США на мировую культуру негативным. Позитивно его оценили 22%", - пишет газета. По отдельным категориям опрошенных цифры распределились так: 32% европейцев и 46% американцев назвали это влияние негативным, а 26% европейцев и 33% американцев - позитивным. Но в некоторых странах позитивная оценка преобладает над негативной: это Италия, Великобритания, Польша, Болгария и Румыния. Самого низкого мнения о влиянии американской культуры придерживаются греки (критикуют 58% респондентов), на втором месте США (46%), и только на третьем - Россия (45%).

30% всех опрошенных и 40% европейцев считают лучшими сферами американской культуры кино и ТВ. Высокую оценку также получили спорт и музыка. Американскую литературу, кухню и модную одежду положительно оценили всего 4% респондентов, а 21% дали ответы: "Америка не внесла никакого вклада" или "Не знаю".

Самыми рьяными поклонниками американского кино и телевидения оказались греки, венгры и голландцы - те же самые нации, которые крайне низко оценивают влияние Америки на политику и культуру, отмечает издание.

"Как ни удивительно, худшим вкладом США в мировую культуру 32% американцев назвали кино и телепередачи - это значительно более высокий процент, чем в любой другой стране, и самый популярный ответ среди американских респондентов", - подчеркивает автор.

Что касается роли США в мировой политике, то она негативно оценивается почти двумя третями опрошенных, в том числе 88% греков, 80% голландцев и швейцарцев, 78% бельгийцев. Позитивная оценка политического влияния США не преобладает ни в одной стране, но наиболее милосердны румыны, болгары и поляки. Что до американцев, то лишь 18% респондентов похвалили роль своей страны в мировой политике, отмечает издание.

Оценивая президентство Обамы, европейцы проявляли даже больше оптимизма, чем американцы: в Бельгии и Швеции 84% уверены, что оно знаменует позитивныеую роль США в мире, а в самой Америке - лишь 61%. "В России лишь 27% ответили, что избрание Обамы знаменует позитивные или очень позитивные перемены во влиянии США на мировую политику", - отмечает издание, подчеркивая, что этот результат можно не учитывать, так как 32% россиян вообще затруднились с ответом.
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СообщениеДобавлено: Пятница, 19 Июнь 2009, 14:12:08    Заголовок сообщения: Ответить с цитатой

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124534162608828017.html
How Europe Sees America
Our Survey on Attitudes About U.S. Cultural and Political Influence

By ADAM COHEN

Ask people what they think of America's cultural and political influence in the wider world and you're sure to get a mixed response, even from Americans.
What They Said

One thing is clear: Most Europeans think America's political influence in the world was negative over the past five years, but say it has taken a sharply positive turn since Barack Obama's election as U.S. president.

When it comes to culture, Europeans' view of America's contributions is more complex. Some aspects are loathed, others are loved. Large numbers of Europeans say they detest American food, but cite films and television shows as the country's best exports.

To study this issue and broader questions about what the world thinks of America and what Americans think of themselves, The Wall Street Journal asked market-research firm GfK to poll more than 18,000 people in 18 countries -- 16 European nations, plus the U.S. and Russia. GfK polled respondents about the facets of American culture they admire and those they dislike and asked them whether they viewed U.S. political influence in a positive or negative light.

Some of the results fit well-established stereotypes. For example, French respondents didn't like the Bush years and voiced a stronger distaste for American cuisine than any other country surveyed. But other features of the poll proved surprising, particularly when Americans were asked how they view their own country's role in the world and its contribution to global culture.

"The views of American political influence show a very, very positive change with the election of Obama," said Mark Hofmans, a managing director in GfK's Brussels office, who analyzed the survey results. "Attitudes toward American cultural influence are far more nuanced."

GfK asked respondents to rate, in broad terms, America's cultural influence in the world. It then identified several categories -- movies and television, fashion, food, sports, music, architecture and literature -- and asked respondents to identify the best and worst aspects of U.S. cultural influence in the world. Respondents were also given the option to say "other" or "nothing."

In total, more respondents (39%) said America's cultural influence in the world was negative than those who said it was positive (22%). Among European respondents, 32% said U.S. cultural influence was negative, compared to 26% who gave a positive response. Americans were slightly more downbeat than average, with 46% of those surveyed saying their country has a negative cultural influence in the world, compared with 33% who describe it as positive.
[hot dog] AFP

Several countries surveyed had more positive than negative votes. In Italy, 39% of respondents had a positive impression of U.S. cultural influence, compared with 25% who gave a negative answer. The U.K. (38% to 31%), Poland (32% to 24%), Bulgaria (29% to 25%) and Romania (29% to 26%) also logged more positive than negative responses.

Luigi Mattirolo, an Italian civil servant in Rome, said it isn't specifically books or movies that he likes most about American culture, but the country's ethic of initiative and free enterprise.

The American "way of thinking makes it possible for the people who really believe in something to achieve their goals. At least [in the U.S.] it happens more frequently than in Europe," Mr. Mattirolo said.

The most negative impressions of U.S. cultural influence were found in Greece, where 58% criticized America's cultural influence. Americans were the second-most critical group, followed by Russia (45%) and Hungary (40%).

In the breakdown of what people like best about American culture, a total of 30% of those surveyed cited movies and television shows, making this by far the most popular category. Among Europeans, the number was even higher: 40% said movies and TV were the best American cultural export. Sports (12%) and music (11%) were the only other categories that received high marks (each was the choice of 13% of Europeans). American fashion, literature and food each were given positive marks by only 4% of all respondents, while 21% of those surveyed said "nothing" or "I don't know" when asked about the best American contribution to world culture.

Greeks, who gave American political and cultural influence some of the most negative reviews in the survey, were the most enthusiastic admirers of American movies and television, with 52% citing these as America's best exports. Hungarian (51%) and Dutch (50%) respondents, who also gave U.S. political and cultural influence negative scores, also professed admiration for Hollywood.

Surprisingly, when asked to identify America's worst contribution to world culture, 32% of Americans pointed to film and television, a far higher proportion than in any other country and the single most popular response among U.S. respondents. It turns out Americans see their films and TV shows, which broadly are admired around the world, as having a negative cultural influence.

Still, 18% of American respondents cited films and television shows as the country's best contribution to world culture, followed closely by food (11%) and sports (10%). The most popular response, however, was "other," showing that Americans likely have a far more nuanced view of their country's cultural worth than others around the globe.

Other countries all singled out American food as the country's worst contribution to global culture. Sixty-five percent of French respondents gave this answer, the highest in the group. Swiss (56%) and German (52%) respondents were close behind.

The French numbers are interesting, considering that McDonald's is virtually ubiquitous in the country and another U.S. edible export, Starbucks, has been spreading around Paris over the past few years.

"I think that in France we are not influenced by American food," said Amaury de Saint-Ours, a business consultant in Paris. "We don't have a good opinion of it. We think of McDonald's hamburgers." He explained that people go to McDonald's in France because it is cheap and quick, not because the food is good. "We are lucky in France. We have great cheese, great meats and great wine."

When it comes to politics, almost two-thirds of those surveyed said the U.S. was a negative influence in the world over the past five years. The most downbeat country was Greece, where 88% of respondents said U.S. political influence was either "negative" or "very negative." Other countries, including the Netherlands (80%), Switzerland (80%) and Belgium (78%) also had predominantly negative views of American political influence.

Maybe this result isn't surprising, given that over the past five years the U.S. presence in Iraq -- never popular in Europe -- has continued, with regular reports of violence. But some of the sharply negative views are colored by other factors, including history.

In Greece, for example, the U.S. backed a military junta between 1967 and 1974 that curbed civil liberties and used harsh tactics against dissenters. U.S. President Bill Clinton later expressed regret for U.S. involvement in this era of Greek history, but suspicion and anger still linger.

"There is a very strong and common belief in Greece, especially among young people, that the USA, being the leading capitalistic country, has a detrimental impact on every affair or situation it tries to solve or influence," said Yannis Loizos, a lawyer in Athens.

None of the countries included in the survey gave U.S. political influence more positive than negative marks for the past five years. But some countries were less negative than others. Thirty-two percent of Romanian respondents said U.S. political influence was negative, the lowest level in the survey. Bulgaria (40%) and Poland (41%) were close behind.

The largest share of positive votes in this category was in Poland where a total of 22% of respondents gave the U.S. "positive" or "very positive" marks. Romania (19%) and the U.K. (19%) trailed in the category, but still were more complimentary than the Americans polled. Only 18% of U.S. respondents praised their country's political influence in the world over the past five years.

Countries in Central and Eastern Europe have tended to be more pro-American than other parts of the globe in recent years. Many cite the U.S. as a positive force against a resurgent Russia, which shrouded the region under Communist rule only a generation ago.

"During the cultural gulag and oppression [of the Soviet years], America was a beacon of hope and light to Romanians. America symbolized the land of the free," said Eugen Babau, a Romanian who until recently worked for an energy company. Many Romanians, he said, "still aspire to America as the promised land."

Even though the U.S. war in Iraq continues and President Obama has promised to send more U.S. troops to Afghanistan, the survey respondents were clear: The Obama era marks an about-face for U.S. political influence in the world.

Europeans are even more optimistic about Mr. Obama's presidency than Americans. In Belgium and Sweden, 84% of respondents believe America's political influence in the world will change in a "positive" or "very positive" way as a result of Mr. Obama's election. In Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, 82% of respondents gave the same answer. In the U.S., 61% of those surveyed gave a "positive" or "very positive" reply.

Elsewhere in Western Europe, Greece (59%), Spain (63%) and France (68%) gave the same reply about U.S. political influence since Mr. Obama's election, showing that while most of the world sees the new U.S. president in a positive light, countries aren't uniformly elated.

Many of the countries that had a less negative view of U.S. political influence over the past five years were among the least enthused about Mr. Obama's presidency. In Poland, 45% of those surveyed said Mr. Obama's election marked a "positive" or "very positive" change in U.S. political influence. Romania (47%) and Bulgaria (48%) were close behind.

Russia led this category, with only 27% saying Mr. Obama's election marked a "positive" or "very positive" change. This result could be skewed, however, since 32% of Russians surveyed gave no answer to the question, by far the highest level among the countries polled.

"In Central and Eastern European countries, the response to Obama has been a little less positive, but on the whole, the 'Obama effect' is very noticeable," Gfk's Mr. Hofmans said. "I hadn't expected such overwhelmingly positive figures."
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